The Horse

JAN 2019

The Horse:Your Guide To Equine Health Care provides monthly equine health care information to horse owners, breeders, veterinarians, barn/farm managers, trainer/riding instructors, and others involved in the hands-on care of the horse.

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WHAT'SONLINE CURRENTLY ON 6 January 2019 The Horse | TheHorse.com Equine herpesvirus-1 is more than just a cause of snotty noses in young horses. Learn more about this highly infectious disease and how to protect your horse. Sponsored by Merck Animal Health. TheHorse.com/162760 Learn about the pros (and potential cons) of these medications approved to help horses with navicular issues and other musculoskeletal disorders. Sponsored by Dechra Veterinary Products. TheHorse.com/162813 Robin Foster, PhD, CHBC, Cert. AAB, IAABC, offers possible explanations, including low reinforcement value, physical pain, and a negative training history, among others. TheHorse.com/162840 Your Nutrition Questions Answered Watch: The Equine Gut Microbiome Each week equine nutritionist Clair Thunes, PhD, answers reader questions about feeding horses. Submit yours to THEditorialStaff@TheHorse.com. Sponsored by LMF Feeds. ■ Can Horses Get Enough Protein From Hay Alone? TheHorse.com/162710 ■ Grain-Free Feeds for Horses TheHorse.com/162967 Carolyn Arnold, DVM, Dipl. ACVS, of Texas A&M University, offers a better understanding of the gut microbial community's role in colic and colitis. TheHorse.com/UKLectures Read: Why Won't My Horse Go … Even for a Cookie? Special Report: 12 Facts About EHV-1 Fact Sheet: Bisphosphonate Use in Horses COURTESY KIM MCCARREL ISTOCK.COM ISTOCK.COM Read: Being a Good Trail Riding Buddy Trail riding expert and guidebook author Kim McCarrel shares eight safety tips to help you become a good riding partner. TheHorse.com/163124 ■ HORSE HEALTH This award-winning e-newsletter offers news on diseases, veterinary research, and health events, along with in-depth articles on common equine health conditions. Supported by Zoetis . ■ HORSE WELFARE AND INDUSTRY Get the latest news on equine welfare, industry happenings, and horse-related business. E-NEWSLETTERS Get Horse Health News Delivered To You! ■ SPECIALTY WEEKLY E-NEWSLETTERS ■ Nutrition ■ Soundness & Lameness ■ Reader Favorites MONTHLY E-NEWSLETTERS ■ Behavior ■ Breeding ■ Farm & Barn ■ Older Horse Care ■ Sports Medicine This download may be reprinted and distributed in this exact form for educational purposes only in print or electronically. It may not be used for commercial purposes in print or electronically or republished on a website, forum, or blog. For more horse health information on this and other topics visit www.TheHorse.com . Published by The Horse: Your Guide To Equine Health Care, © Copyright 2018 The Horse Media Group. Contact editorial@TheHorse.com . 1 2 F a c t s A b o u t E q u i n e H e r p e s v i r u s N a s a l d i s c h a r g e i s a h a l l m a r k s i g n o f r e s p i r a t o r y e q u i n e h e r p e s v i r u s . Anytime your horse comes in contact with new equids, he's at risk of contracting equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). More than just a cause of snotty noses in young horses, EHV-1 is highly contagious and can cause a variety of ailments, including rhinopneumonitis (a respiratory disease usually found in young horses, resulting in the aforementioned "snotty nose"), abortion in broodmares (often coming in "storms" on breeding farms, where several mares contract the disease and lose their pregnancies), and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM, the often deadly neurologic form). Here are 12 facts to remember about EHV-1 in horses. Special Report S P O N S O R E D B Y CourtE sy Dr. DA viD PowE ll PAG E 1 O F 2 1 Clinical signs depend on the form of the disease. Respiratory signs can include fever and nasal discharge; neurologic horses will typically have ascending paralysis (muscle weak- ness or loss of muscle function); and pregnant mares will abort their foals. eHorse.com/138450 2 Experts say EHV-1 is the most important cause of abortion in U.S. mares. Because of this, veterinar- ians recommend vaccinating mares at five, seven, and nine months of gestation. TheHorse.com/139466 3 In many horses, the first or only sign of EHV-1 infection is fever, which can go undetected. eHorse.com/162049 4 A highly infectious and contagious patho - gen, EHV-1 can spread quickly through equine populations. is is especially true at horse shows and events where unfamiliar horses commingle in close quarters while under stress from travel and competition, which makes them more vulnerable to disease. eHorse.com/139441 5 Veterinarians have long identified neurologic signs as an uncommon consequence of EHV-1 infection; however, in the past 20 years EHM has been reported with increasing frequency, especially in the United States. TheHorse.com/160371 6 Disease caused by EHV-1 can range in severity from mild to severe. eHorse.com/156579 assessment. Only 20.7% (6/29) of horses with navicular syndrome in the saline-treated control group demonstrated decreased lameness; ◆ On Day 56, 74.7% (68/86) of treated horses and 3.6% (1/28) of control horses were treatment successes; and ◆ At Day 180, 85% (51) of the 60 horses that were deemed treatment successes on Day 56 and were evaluable at Day 180 remained treat - ment successes; however, 35% (21/60) of those evaluable horses had an increase in lameness grade at Day 180 as compared to their Day 56 evaluation. Including the 18 treatment failures at Day 56, the estimated overall success rate for Osphos at Day 180 is 65.4% (51/78). Horses treated with Osphos successfully enjoyed relief of clinical signs for approximately six months. This product can be administered every three to six months based on recurrence of clinical signs of navicular syndrome. 1 TiludronaTe disodium (Tildren) Tildren is formulated for intravenous administration. Research showed treatment success (if the lameness in the primarily affected limb improved by at least one grade and there was no worsening of lameness grade in the other forelimb at two months post-treatment compared to pre-treatment) in 63.87% of 119 horses treated with Tildren. 2 The maxi- mum clinical effect does not occur immediately. Instead, clinical improve- ment typically occurs approximately two months after administration. oTher BisphosphonaTe usage: osTeoarThriTis Several recent publications suggest that bisphosphonates could also be useful in managing horses diagnosed with hip and back pain and/or osteoarthritis of the back (i.e., between the individual vertebrae or bones that make up the spinal column and protect the spinal cord). 6,7 Osteo- arthritis, like navicular syndrome, currently lacks a definitive cure, and owners similarly rely on management techniques to help affected horses. Bisphosphonates could also help horses with osteoarthritis affecting other joints, such as hocks, although the evidence supporting this use is limited. 6 BisphosphonaTe ConCerns Doctors have used nitrogenous bisphosphonates in humans for many BISPHOSPHONATE S FAC T SHEET SponSored By Authored by StAcey o ke, dVM, MSc; reViewed by LAurA kennedy, dVM, d ipL. AcVp BisphosphonaTe use in horses Learn about the pros (and potential cons) of these medications approved to help horses with navicular syndrome and other musculoskeletal disorders B isphosphonates inhibit bone breakdown/ resorption, making them useful for treating bone disorders such as podotrochlosis (navicular syndrome) in horses. In human medicine, patients with various bone fragility disorders, including osteoporosis, reap the rewards of bisphosphonate treatment. In healthy animals, including horses, bone turns over continually. Cells called osteoclasts play a key role in breaking down old bone while another type of cell—osteoblasts—creates new bone. This natu- ral process ensures bones remain strong and healthy and allows them to adapt to changes in exercise level or musculoskeletal system stress. Bisphosphonates bind to osteoclasts to block excess bone resorption. BisphosphonaTes for naviCular syndrome Currently, only two bisphosphonates have garnered U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for equine use. Both products are licensed "for the control of clinical signs associated with navicular syndrome in horses." 1,2 Bisphosphonates appear to block osteoclast activity in horses with navicular syndrome, a common cause of chronic foot pain in horses resulting from the progressive degeneration of the navicular bone and its associated structures. 3 Navicular syndrome has no cure, so current treatment options focus on controlling discomfort and potentially minimizing disease progres- sion. Common management strategies include but are not limited to rest, corrective shoeing, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). 4 In many cases, these treatment options provide inadequate control over navicular syndrome. Prior to bisphosphonate availability, many horses suffering from navicular syndrome had uncontrolled dis- comfort, decreased quality of life, and were unable to compete at their owners' desired level, leading to retirement and attrition. The two FDA-approved bisphosphonates for use in horses are clo- dronate disodium (Osphos) and tiludronate disodium (Tildren). 5 Data support both products' safety and efficacy in horses with navicular syndrome. The main difference between the two products is the ad- ministration route. ClodronaTe disodium (osphos) This bisphosphonate is administered intramuscularly. The dose is divided and injected into three distinct sites to minimize injection-site irritation or reaction. Manufacturer studies showed that: ◆ On Day 28 after administration, 67.4% (60/89) of treatments were considered successes, defined as an improvement of at least one lameness grade and no worsening of lameness grade in the other forelimb on Day 56 post-treatment as compared to the pre-treatment Anne M. eB erh Ardt/ the h orse Bisphosphonates can help horses with navicular syndrome and other degenerative conditions. Thursday, Jan. 10, 2019 ❙ 8 p.m. EST Getting Ready for Breeding Season Our reproduction experts answer your questions about breeding mares and stallions and producing healthy foals. ASK THE HORSE LIVE! Visit TheHorse.com/ AskTheHorseLive 1 Creating and properly maintain- ing arena and racetrack footing is important not only for equine injury prevention but also for rider safety. In recent years it's been a growing research focus for scientists around the world. One of those researchers, Mick Peterson, PhD, is the director of the University of Kentucky (UK) Ag Equine Programs, a faculty member within UK's Biosystems and Agricul- tural Engineering Department, and ex- ecutive director of the Racing Surfaces Testing Laboratory (RSTL). The RSTL, founded by Peterson and Wayne McIlwraith, BVSc, PhD, DSc, FRCVS, Dipl. ACVS, a professor at Colorado State University's College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, has a more than 10-year his- tory of examining surfaces at race- tracks and equestrian sports venues worldwide, developing protocols and standards, and offering recommenda- tions. Peterson is considered one of the world's premiere experts in testing of high-level competition surfaces. Regardless of whether the RSTL team is working on a track (dirt, turf, or synthetic) or arena, its objective of surface testing remains the same. Here, we'll focus on racetrack surface testing; a later article will address arenas. "The goal (of surface testing) is to create a consistent surface and to meet the needs of the event," Peterson said. Ensuring racetrack surfaces meet the established criteria is fairly straightforward, he said. One param- eter the surface testing team can use to determine if the surface is doing its job well is race times for a particular day. However, it is critical on those occasions when a horse is injured and/ or safety questions arise that complete data is available to ensure the safest possible surface is provided for racing. Testing track surfaces involves examining its composition, as well as how the footing performs during use. Once investigators perform these tests, they can make recommendations for improvement, whether it be the foot- ing's contents or how it's maintained. Surface testing isn't a one-time event; rather, its a regular part of track maintenance. Part of their goal is to ensure proper long-term surface maintenance. The Maintenance Qual- ity System (MQS), which Peterson and the RSTL developed, involves a methodical approach of assessing and maintaining the surface prior to every event; it also assists track maintenance workers in enhancing the maintenance protocols already in place. This is the fi rst in a series of articles looking at the testing and maintenance of equine competition surfaces worldwide. N o matter the discipline—be it a horse race, show jumping competition, dressage test, reining pattern, or any other equine events that take place every year—all have one singular requirement they need to take place: appropriate and safe footing. In is Issue Feeding Healthy Senior Horses 02 Cold Spells Stress Livestock 05 Dr. Uneeda Bryant Recognized 07 Mineral of the Month: Zinc 10 Engineers inspect tracks prior to a race meet or before a change in season, depending on how long the venue operates each year, to ensure it is fully prepared for a safe competition. ANNE M. EBERHARDT/THE HORSE CA.UKY.EDU/EQUINE ❙ THEHORSE.COM ❙ JANUARY 2018 B R O U G H T T O Y O U B Y PART ONE: AN INTRODUCTION TO SURFACE TESTING Surface Testing: Keeping Horse and Rider Safety in Mind ■ Bluegrass Equine Digest is published monthly in partnership with UK Ag Equine and the Gluck Equine Research Center and is supported by Zoetis .

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