The Horse

NOV 2018

The Horse:Your Guide To Equine Health Care provides monthly equine health care information to horse owners, breeders, veterinarians, barn/farm managers, trainer/riding instructors, and others involved in the hands-on care of the horse.

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WHAT'SONLINE CURRENTLY ON 6 November 2018 The Horse | TheHorse.com Daniela Luethy, DVM, Dipl. ACVIM, of the University of Pennsylvania, outlines the signs of a horse with botulism, including muscle weakness, lethargy, and the inability to eat. Sponsored by BotVax B. TheHorse.com/ 160040. Regenerative therapies can help horses recover following injury. Learn more about stem cell, IRAP, and PRP therapy use in horses. Sponsored by Advanced Regenerative Therapy and Biovision Veterinary Endoscopy. TheHorse.com/ 160623. Send your equine nutrition questions to THEditorialStaff@TheHorse.com. Sponsored by LMF Feeds. ■ Feeding Honey to Horses, TheHorse.com/160523 ■ Pelleted vs. Textured Horse Feed, TheHorse.com/160824 Core Vaccines: Protect Your Horse From 5 Deadly Diseases Listen: Equine Boarding Barns and Biosecurity Vaccinating could save your horse's life. Find out what veterinarians recommend for your horse. Sponsored by Core EQ Innovator TheHorse.com/CoreDiseases What can boarders do when a barn is lax about biosecurity? Get tips to keep your horse healthy. Sponsored by Neogen. TheHorse.com/160845. Ask: Questions About Equine Nutrition Listen: Signs of Botulism in Adult Horses Read: Regenerative Medicine Use in Horses ISTOCK.COM ISTOCK.COM ■ HORSE HEALTH This award-winning e-newsletter offers news on diseases, veterinary research, and health events, along with in-depth articles on common equine health conditions. Supported by Zoetis. ■ HORSE WELFARE AND INDUSTRY Get the latest news on equine welfare, industry happenings, and horse-related business. E-NEWSLETTERS Get Horse Health News Delivered To You! ■ SPECIALTY WEEKLY E-NEWSLETTERS ■ Nutrition ■ Soundness & Lameness ■ Reader Favorites MONTHLY E-NEWSLETTERS ■ Behavior ■ Breeding ■ Farm & Barn ■ Older Horse Care ■ Sports Medicine Fill Out: Horse Identification Form Keep track of your horse's distinguishing characteristics and record emergency contact information on this one- page form. Sponsored by BotVax B. TheHorse.com/138000. AVAILABLE AT OWNER _______________________________________ OWNER'S ADDRESS __________________________________ CITY ______________________ STATE ________ ZIP ________ WORK PHONE _______________________________________ CELL _____________________________________________ E-MAIL ____________________________________________ HORSE'S REGISTERED NAME ______________________ REGISTERED NAME ___________________________________ BARN NAME ________________________________________ AGE _________ BREED ________________ COLOR _________ SEX ¨ STALLION ¨ MARE ¨ GELDING ¨ COLT ¨ FILLY REGISTRATION ORGANIZATION ___________________________ MICROCHIP NO. _____________________________________ OTHER IDENTIFYING FEATURES, EQUIPMENT, OR BEHAVIORS ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ADDITIONAL REMARKS ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ MANAGEMENT INFORMATION KNOWN ALLERGIES ___________________________________ KNOWN HEALTH CONDITIONS ___________________________ _________________________________________________ NORMAL DIET INCLUDING SUPPLEMENTS AND PASTURE _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ MEDICATIONS/SCHEDULE ______________________________ _________________________________________________ HORSE IS USUALLY KEPT (Please check one) ¨ AT PASTURE FULL-TIME ¨ STALLED FULL-TIME ¨ TURNED OUT PART OF MOST DAYS LAST NEGATIVE COGGINS TEST (EIA) _______________________ VACCINATIONS DISEASE(S) DATE ROUTE (IM/IN) ANTHRAX ____________ ____________ BOTULISM ____________ ____________ EEE/WEE/VEE ____________ ____________ WNV ____________ ____________ FLU/RHINO ____________ ____________ INFLUENZA ____________ ____________ POTOMAC HORSE FEVER ____________ ____________ RABIES ____________ ____________ RHINOPNEUMONITIS ____________ ____________ ROTAVIRUS ____________ ____________ STRANGLES ____________ ____________ TETANUS ____________ ____________ VETERINARIAN _________________________________ VET'S ADDRESS _____________________________________ CITY ______________________ STATE ________ ZIP ________ WORK PHONE _______________________________________ CELL _____________________________________________ E-MAIL ____________________________________________ ALTERNATE CONTACT ____________________________ ADDRESS __________________________________________ CITY ______________________ STATE ________ ZIP ________ HOME PHONE _______________________________________ CELL _____________________________________________ E-MAIL ____________________________________________ INSURANCE CO. _______________ PHONE ________________ Horse Identification Form HORSE'S NAME _________________________ DESCRIPTION / REMARKS DESCRIPTION / REMARKS Keep copies of this form for each horse at the barn and with your alternate contact in case of emergency. Veterinarian-approved articles and a FREE weekly Horse Health E-Newsletter at TheHorse.com! SPONSORED BY Thursday, Nov. 8, 2018 ❙ 8 p.m. EST Podotrochlosis (aka Navicular Syndrome) This painful foot condition involves much more than the small bone that used to be its namesake. Confused? Now's your chance to get answers. Sponsored by Bimeda ASK THE HORSE LIVE! Visit TheHorse.com/AskTheHorseLive 1 Creating and properly maintain- ing arena and racetrack footing is important not only for equine injury prevention but also for rider safety. In recent years it's been a growing research focus for scientists around the world. One of those researchers, Mick Peterson, PhD, is the director of the University of Kentucky (UK) Ag Equine Programs, a faculty member within UK's Biosystems and Agricul- tural Engineering Department, and ex- ecutive director of the Racing Surfaces Testing Laboratory (RSTL). The RSTL, founded by Peterson and Wayne McIlwraith, BVSc, PhD, DSc, FRCVS, Dipl. ACVS, a professor at Colorado State University's College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, has a more than 10-year his- tory of examining surfaces at race- tracks and equestrian sports venues worldwide, developing protocols and standards, and offering recommenda- tions. Peterson is considered one of the world's premiere experts in testing of high-level competition surfaces. Regardless of whether the RSTL team is working on a track (dirt, turf, or synthetic) or arena, its objective of surface testing remains the same. Here, we'll focus on racetrack surface testing; a later article will address arenas. "The goal (of surface testing) is to create a consistent surface and to meet the needs of the event," Peterson said. Ensuring racetrack surfaces meet the established criteria is fairly straightforward, he said. One param- eter the surface testing team can use to determine if the surface is doing its job well is race times for a particular day. However, it is critical on those occasions when a horse is injured and/ or safety questions arise that complete data is available to ensure the safest possible surface is provided for racing. Testing track surfaces involves examining its composition, as well as how the footing performs during use. Once investigators perform these tests, they can make recommendations for improvement, whether it be the foot- ing's contents or how it's maintained. Surface testing isn't a one-time event; rather, its a regular part of track maintenance. Part of their goal is to ensure proper long-term surface maintenance. The Maintenance Qual- ity System (MQS), which Peterson and the RSTL developed, involves a methodical approach of assessing and maintaining the surface prior to every event; it also assists track maintenance workers in enhancing the maintenance protocols already in place. This is the fi rst in a series of articles looking at the testing and maintenance of equine competition surfaces worldwide. N o matter the discipline—be it a horse race, show jumping competition, dressage test, reining pattern, or any other equine events that take place every year—all have one singular requirement they need to take place: appropriate and safe footing. In is Issue Feeding Healthy Senior Horses 02 Cold Spells Stress Livestock 05 Dr. Uneeda Bryant Recognized 07 Mineral of the Month: Zinc 10 Engineers inspect tracks prior to a race meet or before a change in season, depending on how long the venue operates each year, to ensure it is fully prepared for a safe competition. ANNE M. EBERHARDT/THE HORSE CA.UKY.EDU/EQUINE ❙ THEHORSE.COM ❙ JANUARY 2018 B R O U G H T T O Y O U B Y PART ONE: AN INTRODUCTION TO SURFACE TESTING Surface Testing: Keeping Horse and Rider Safety in Mind ■ Bluegrass Equine Digest is published monthly in partnership with UK Ag Equine and the Gluck Equine Research Center and is supported by Zoetis. Stem cells from adipose tissue can be concentrated and separated from other tissue components before being injected back into the patient. While this approach results in only a very small percentage of actual stem cells being administered, they can often be injected very soon after an injury has been diagnosed. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), derived from bone marrow, can also be collected, concentrated, and injected relatively rapidly; however, researchers recommend using stem cells obtained from bone marrow (or even fat) that have been sent to a laboratory and grown in cultures to produce millions of cells. Those culture-enhanced stem cells take two to four weeks to prepare. Once they've been produced, veterinarians can inject about 10 million cells into the lesion under ultrasonic guidance. Injections can be repeated every four weeks for three to four treatments. That said, optimal dosing and treatment intervals remain unknown. 3 Researchers have found that the stifl e appears to be the joint most amenable to stem cell therapy, especially for cases associated with meniscal and soft-tissue injuries. Veterinarians can inject approximately 10-20 million stem cells per joint. Again, exact dosing has not been fully established. 4 IRAP THERAPY IRAP continues to gain traction in the realm of joint disease treatments. 4 This regenerative therapy, also called autologous conditioned serum (ACS, autologous means self-derived), can be produced using samples from the horse's own body. Veterinarians collect a small volume of blood from the patient and allow it to clot. Then, they mix the serum—the liquid portion of blood that separates from red blood cells—with special borosilicate glass beads included in commercial ACS kits. This produces anti-infl ammatory molecules called interleukin-1 receptor protein agonists, which block the action of interleukin-1, a very potent pro-infl ammatory molecule. Veterinarians inject the "conditioned" serum directly into the affected joint(s) to exert this anti-infl ammatory effect. Additional growth factors produced during the incubation process that can help with healing include interleukin-10, fi broblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor, among others. 3 The conditioned serum takes about 24 hours to produce. One recent review confi rmed that horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis treated with IRAP had a signifi cant improvement in lameness and healing. Treatment protocols vary, but injecting 2-10 mL of conditioned serum (depending on the size/volume of the joint) into the affected joint every three to 10 days, for a total of three treatments, appears effective. 4 For long-term maintenance of chronic joint disease, a single injection of IRAP administered on an as-needed basis appears effective. IRAP/ACS injections can, like any REGENERATIVE MEDICINE FACTSHEET SPONSORED BY REGENERATIVE MEDICINE USE IN HORSES Scienti c advances culminating in the birth of regenerative therapies can help horses recover following injury BY STACEY OKE, DVM, MSC; REVIEWED BY ASHLEE WATTS, DVM, PHD, DIPL. ACVS A t one point or another, most athletic horses suffer some type of musculoskeletal injury, regardless of their performance level. Joints, tendons, and ligaments are among the most commonly affected structures. In joint injury/disease for example, once the joint becomes infl amed, a series of events results in continued infl ammation, culminating in pain, swelling, decreased range of motion, and a progressive deterioration of the articular cartilage lining the ends of long bones. Tendons and ligaments, on the other hand, do attempt to heal, but instead of simply repairing or replacing injured fi bers, the body produces scar tissue. Scar tissue has far less strength and elasticity than normal, healthy tendon and ligament fi bers, which explains why tendon and ligament reinjury rates are so high despite prolonged recovery times (six to nine months or more). Veterinarians use a variety of diagnostic tools to identify these injuries, including but not limited to physical exams and fl exion tests, needle arthroscopy, MRI, X ray, and ultrasound. An accurate diagnosis can help veterinarians identify an appropriate treatment plan. Treatment options vary greatly and can include rehabilitation, medical, shoeing, and surgical techniques. 1 Of the many available treatment options, three — stem cell therapy, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein therapy (IRAP), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) — fall into a unique class of therapies called "regenerative medicine." As defi ned by the National Institutes of Health, "regenerative medicine is the process of creating living, functional tissues to repair or replace tissue or organ function lost due to age, disease, damage, or congenital defects." 2 The concept is to help the body repair injured tissues with its own cells to maximize healing. STEM CELL THERAPY Stem cell therapy appears to be a highly valuable tool for managing musculoskeletal injuries. Stem cells can be "coaxed" into becoming tissue-specifi c cell types, such as tendons and ligaments. Common stem cell sources include adipose (fat) tissue, bone marrow, fetal tissues, and even dental pulp. DUSTY PERIN Veterinarians use stem cell injections to treat a variety of musculoskeletal ailments in horses. ISTOCK.COM

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