The Horse

FEB 2018

The Horse:Your Guide To Equine Health Care provides monthly equine health care information to horse owners, breeders, veterinarians, barn/farm managers, trainer/riding instructors, and others involved in the hands-on care of the horse.

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43 February 2018 THE HORSE TheHorse.com and their effects in horses. Given the miniscule amount of science available, what would nutritionists and veterinar- ians suggest for joint support? Oral supplements must be given daily to work effectively. For owners who don't see their horses every day or don't have ser- vices at their barn to provide feedings, oral supplements might not be the best choice. Grant Miller, DVM, of Equine Solu- tions, in Petaluma, California, suggests consulting with your veterinarian before adding any oral joint supplement to your horse's diet. Although classified as nutraceuticals, joint supplements are still pharmaceutical agents. "There may be potentially harmful interactions when adding a joint supplement to an existing cadre of supplements," he says. "Checking with your veterinarian first is paramount." The joint supplement ingredients that will be most effective depends on the individual horse. Miller says each supple- ment, be it glucosamine, chondroitin, MSM, or hyaluronic acid, generally acts as an anti-inflammatory in the body. "Inflammation is a complex physiolog- ic phenomenon, orchestrated by literally hundreds of chemical mediators," he says. "No inflammatory profile is exactly the same between animals." For instance, one horse's inflam- mation might be governed heavily by prostaglandins, another by leukotrienes (both of which are types of inflammatory mediators). Also, some joint supplements have anti- inflammatory affinities for dif- ferent inflammatory mediators. "So, glucosamine may do a great job on the prostaglandins while hyaluronic may knock out some of those leukotrienes," says Miller. "It all just comes down to each horse." As far as PUFAs, "there is sustainable evidence in other species and limited in- formation available in horses that support the anti-inflammatory properties of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA," says Jones, "and supplementation is necessary to get the highest concentrations possible for the horse. Adding these to a joint sup- plement may be beneficial due to docu- mented anti-inflammatory properties." Bottom line: Incorporating a joint supplement into the horse's feed regimen early in life is far more beneficial than starting a joint supplement after the horse begins showing signs of problems, says Miller. This is because we do know from research that these types of products do much more to prevent joint problems than to treat existing ones. Work with your veterinarian to determine what's best for your individual horse, and always ob- tain supplements from a reputable source to prevent side effects and toxicities. h LEGEND ® Multi Dose (hyaluronate sodium) For Intravenous Use in Horses Only Not for Intra-Articular Use and LEGEND ® (hyaluronate sodium) Injectable Solution 4 mL For Intravenous Use In Horses Only 2 mL For Intravenous or Intra-Articular Use In Horses Only BRIEF SUMMARY Prior to use please consult the product insert, a summary of which follows: CAUTION Federal Law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. INDICATIONS LEGEND ® Injectable Solution and LEGEND ® Multi Dose Injectable Solution are indicated in the treatment of equine joint dysfunction associated with equine osteoarthritis. CONTRAINDICATIONS There are no known contraindications for the use of LEGEND ® Injectable Solution and LEGEND ® Multi Dose Injectable Solution in horses. RESIDUE WARNINGS Do not use in horses intended for human consumption. HUMAN WARNINGS Not for use in humans. Keep out of reach of children. ANIMAL SAFETY WARNING For LEGEND Injectable Solution 4 mL and LEGEND Multi Dose Injectable Solution – Not for Intra-articular use. The Intra-articular safety of hyaluronate sodium with benzyl alcohol has not been evaluated. PRECAUTIONS Complete lameness evaluation should be conducted by a veterinarian. Sterile procedure during the injection process must be followed. Intra-articular injections should not be made through skin that is inflamed, infected or has had a topical product applied. The safety of LEGEND Injectable Solution and LEGEND Multi Dose has not been evaluated in breeding stallions or in breeding, pregnant or lactating mares. ADVERSE REACTIONS No side effects were observed in LEGEND Injectable Solution clinical field trials. Side effects reported post-approval: Following intravenous use: Occasional depression, lethargy, and fever. Following intra- articular (LEGEND Injectable Solution – 2 mL only) use: joint or injection site swelling and joint pain. For medical emergencies or to report adverse reactions, call 1-800-422-9874. ANIMAL SAFETY SUMMARY Animal safety studies utilizing LEGEND Multi Dose Injectable Solution were not performed. LEGEND Multi Dose Injectable Solution was approved based on the conclusion that the safety of LEGEND Multi Dose Injectable Solution will not differ from that demonstrated for the original formulation of LEGEND Injectable Solution. LEGEND Injectable Solution was administered to normal horses at one, three and five times the recommended intra-articular dosage of 20 mg and the intravenous dose of 40 mg. Treatments were given weekly for nine consecutive weeks. No adverse clinical or clinical pathologic signs were observed. Injection site swelling of the joint capsule was similar to that seen in the saline treated control horses. No gross or histological lesions were observed in areas of the treated joint. For customer care or to obtain product information, including a Material Safety Data Sheet, call 1-888-637-4251 Option 2. ®LEGEND is a registered trademark, and ™ the Horse Logo is a trademark, of Merial. ©2016 Merial, Inc., Duluth, GA. All rights reserved. SUPPLEMENT IN THE LAB IN THE LIVE HORSE Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate Protects proteoglycan production Inhibits gene expression of a proteinase responsible for cell breakdown Reduces inflammation Might reduce frequency of joint injections Reduces arthritic pain MSM N/A Reduces blood markers for oxidation and inflammation PUFAs N/A Reduce inflammation Reduce lameness severity and joint pain Improve ease of movement Hyaluronic Acid Protects synovial cell viability Reduces inflammation Reduces joint swelling Avocado Soy Unsaponifiables N/A Increase GAG production Reduce articular cartilage erosion SUMMARY OF ORAL JOINT SUPPLEMENT RESEARCH FINDINGS IN HORSES Resveratrol Prevents cartilage breakdown Reduces inflammation Reduces lameness severity

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